Annular solar eclipse on December 26

Above: Photo of an annular “ring of fire” solar eclipse by Geoff Sims on May 10, 2013

The third and final solar eclipse of the year falls on December 26, 2019, in the world’s Eastern Hemisphere. However, this is the year’s only annular eclipse – sometimes called a “ring of fire” eclipse. An annular eclipse, like a total solar eclipse, happens when the new moon moves directly in front of the sun – except that in the case of an annular eclipse, the new moon is too small to totally cover over the sun’s disk. Therefore an annulus – or thin ring of sunshine – surrounds the new moon silhouette.

The first solar eclipse on January 6, 2019, was a partial solar eclipse, and the second one on July 2, 2019, was a total solar eclipse. Because this is an annular eclipse – not a total solar eclipse – there is no safe window for directly watching this eclipse without proper eye protection.

Observing solar eclipses safely

The above diagram shows a total solar eclipse (A), annular eclipse (B) and partial solar eclipse (C). Image credit: Wikimedia Commons

We refer you to the map (and animation) of the December 26th annular eclipse below. The narrow red ribbon outlines the narrow path of the annular eclipse, starting at sunrise in Saudi Arabia (at left) and then ending at sunset over the North Pacific Ocean (at right). It takes the moon’s antumbral shadow some 3 1/3 hours to traverse this 12,900 km annular eclipse path, which has a width varying from 117 km wide at the path’s center to over 160 km wide at the path’s beginning and ending points.

Map of December 26, 2019, annular eclipse.

The narrow annular eclipse path (in red) starts at sunrise at left ,over Saudi Arabia. and ends at sunset at right over the North Pacific ocean. The annular eclipse takes 3 1/3 hours to traverse this 12,900 km path. At any one point on the path, however, the maximum duration of the annular eclipse is only 3 2/3 minutes. Click here for an extended version of the above map, or click here for a detailed map, and local eclipse times, via TimeandDate.

Animation of solar eclipse on December 26, 2019.

Animated version of the above map. The small dot depicts the path of the annular eclipse, whereas the much larger circle surrounding the small dot shows the viewing area for a partial solar eclipse.

The annular eclipse is visible from some parts of Saudi Arabia, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Oman, India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Northern Mariana Islands, and Guam. Outside the long and narrow road of the annular eclipse, a much broader swath of the world can watch varying degrees of a partial eclipse. The farther north or south you are from the annular eclipse path, the shallower that the partial solar eclipse in your sky. The numbers on the map (0.80, 0.60, o.40, 0.20) tell you the eclipse magnitude – the portion of the sun’s diameter that is covered over by the moon. To find out if and when this eclipse comes to your part of the world, try the wonderful resources below, which give the eclipse times in local time (no conversion from Universal Time to local time is necessary):

Eclipse map and local eclipse times via TimeandDate

Local eclipse times for numerous cities via EcipseWise

If you live long the annular eclipse path, be mindful that a partial eclipse precedes and follows the short-lived annular eclipse. We give the eclipse times for some cities along the path of annularity in local time (no conversion necessary):

Hofuf, Saudi Arabia
Sunrise (partial eclipse in progress): 6:25 a.m. local time (December 26)
Annular eclipse begins: 6:34:39 a.m. (December 26)
Maximum eclipse: 6:36:06 a.m. (December 26)
Annular eclipse ends: 6:37 a.m. (December 26)
Partial eclipse ends: 7:48:34 a.m.(December 26)

Kannur, India
Partial eclipse begins: 8:04:56 a.m. local time (December 26)
Annular eclipse begins: 9:24:53 a.m. (December 26)
Maximum eclipse: 9:26:20 a.m. (December 26)
Annular eclipse ends: 9:27:47 a.m. (December 26)
Partial eclipse ends: 11:05:34 a.m.(December 26)

Jaffna, Sri Lanka
Partial eclipse begins: 8:09:03 a.m. local time (December 26)
Annular eclipse begins: 9:33:57 a.m. (December 26)
Maximum eclipse: 9:35:30 a.m. (December 26)
Annular eclipse ends: 9:37:09 a.m. (December 26)
Partial eclipse ends: 11:21:14 a.m.(December 26)

Singapore, Singapore
Partial eclipse begins: 11:27:09 a.m. local time (December 26)
Annular eclipse begins: 1:22:43 p.m. (December 26)
Maximum eclipse: 1:24:42 p.m. (December 26)
Annular eclipse ends: 1:24:41 p.m. (December 26)
Partial eclipse ends: 3:18:26 p.m.(December 26)

Sri Aman, Malaysia
Partial eclipse begins: 11:52:11 a.m. local time (December 26)
Annular eclipse begins: 1:49:44 p.m. (December 26)
Maximum eclipse: 1:51:26 p.m. (December 26)
Annular eclipse ends: 1:53:07 p.m. (December 26)
Partial eclipse ends: 3:36:42 p.m.(December 26)

Sarangani Island, Philippines
Partial eclipse begins: 12:44:06 p.m. local time (December 26)
Annular eclipse begins: 2:29:43 p.m. (December 26)
Maximum eclipse: 2:30:53 p.m. (December 26)
Annular eclipse ends: 2:32:08 p.m. (December 26)
Partial eclipse ends: 3:57:22 p.m.(December 26)

Source: TimeandDate

Dates of moon's phases in 2019.

Dates for the moon’s phases in 2019 via Astropixels. P = partial solar eclipse, T = total solar eclipse, and A = annular eclipse.

Six lunar months (six new moons) before this December 26th annular eclipse, the was a total eclipse of the sun on July 2, 2019. Back then, the moon was some 10,000 miles (16,000 km) closer than the new moon of July 2019. Moreover, the sun in early July was about 3 million miles (5 million km) farther away than the sun is late December. That all adds up to a total solar eclipse on July 2 (maximum duration: 4 minutes and 33 seconds), yet an annular eclipse on December 26 (maximum duration: 3 minutes and 40 seconds).

The longest lasting total solar solar eclipses happen when the moon is near perigee (closest point to Earth in its monthly orbit) and the Earth is near aphelion (farthest point from the sun). The longest total solar eclipse of the 21st century (2001 to 2100) took place on July 22, 2009, with a duration of 6 minutes and 39 seconds.

Annular eclipse beautifying early morning sky.

annular eclipse of January 15, 2010 as seen in Bangui, Central African Republic at 05:19:14 GMT (6:19 local time) via Tino Kreutzer.

On the other hand, the longest lasting annular eclipses happen when the moon is near apogee (its farthest point from Earth in its monthly orbit) and the Earth is near perihelion (closest point to the sun). The longest annular eclipse of the 21st century happened on January 15, 2010, or exactly 6 lunar months (6 full moons) after the century’s longest total solar eclipse on July 2, 2015. The annular eclipse of January 15, 2010, had a duration of 11 minutes and 8 seconds.

If we extend the period to 10,000 years (4000 BCE to 6000 CE), rather than just one century, we find the longest total solar eclipse occurring on July 16, 2186 (7 minutes and 29 seconds) and the longest annular eclipse on December 7, 150 (12 minutes and 24 seconds).

Bruce McClure