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2022 Orionid meteor shower: All you need to know

Diagram showing the earth and a meteor shower.
Orionid meteor shower chart for 2022. Image via Guy Ottewell.

Predicted peak: October 21, 2022, at 18 UTC.
When to watch: Watch for Orionid meteors on both October 20 and 21, in the wee hours after midnight and before dawn.
Overall duration of shower: September 26 to November 22.
Radiant: The radiant rises before midnight and is highest in the sky around 2 a.m. See chart below.
Nearest moon phase: New moon falls at 10:49 UTC on October 25. So, at the Orionids’ predicted* peak, the moon will be in a waning crescent phase and rise in the early morning hours. It’ll be up there, but not too bright. You might even enjoy the waning crescent as you watch for the Orionids in 2022.
Expected meteors at peak, under ideal conditions: Under a dark sky with no moon, the Orionids exhibit a maximum of about 10 to 20 meteors per hour.
Note: These fast-moving meteors occasionally leave persistent trains. The Orionids sometimes produce bright fireballs.

Report a fireball (very bright meteor) to the American Meteor Society: it’s fun and easy!

Orionid meteor shower: Star chart showing radial arrows near one end of constellation Orion.
The Orionids radiate from a point near the upraised Club of the constellation Orion the Hunter. The bright star near the radiant point is ruddy, somber Betelgeuse. You might catch an Orionid meteor any time between about September 26 to November 22. In 2022, the peak morning is October 21, and a waning crescent moon should not interfere with the meteor shower.

The parent comet of the Orionid meteor shower

From the late, great Don Machholz (1952-2022), who discovered 12 comets …

The Orionid meteors that we observe come from Halley’s Comet. This comet orbits the sun every 76 years or so, and like steam coming from a locomotive, dust particles are expelled from the comet’s nucleus and are left behind in its path. We intercept this path in late October of each year. The nucleus of the comet loses between 3 to 10 feet (1-3 meters) of material on each passage through the inner solar system. Measuring 5 by 9 miles (8 by 15 km) in size, it can handle eons of orbits around the sun.

The official name for Halley’s Comet is 1P/Halley. It was the first comet to have its return predicted, and Edmond Halley was the one who made that calculation. The comet typically gets bright enough to be easily visible and has been observed since 240 CE. It is one of only a few comets named not after its discoverer but after the person who calculated its orbit.

Unlike most solar system objects, Halley’s Comet orbits the sun in a retrograde orbit, going around the sun in the opposite direction than we do. Its orbit is also tilted a bit to ours, and it spends most of its time below the plane of our path. Presently, it is at its furthest point from the sun, near the head of Hydra, too faint to be seen.

The Orionids are produced from Halley’s Comet’s particles on its inbound leg. They are moving in one direction, we are moving in nearly the opposite direction, and the combined speeds produce fast-moving meteors. But we also encounter its particles from its outbound leg when it’s leaving the inner solar system. We reach that point in early May. They produce the Eta Aquariids meteor shower. So this comet generates two meteor showers.

Halley’s Comet was last here in 1986 and will return in 2061. But the Orionids never go away, they’re here every October. Go out and see some pieces of this famous comet.

Bright white comet with wide glowing tail streaming out from it.
Halley’s Comet, perhaps the most famous of all comets, is parent of both the Eta Aquariid meteor shower in May and October’s Orionid meteor shower. Image via NASA.

Orionid meteor shower peaks during a waning crescent moon

As for most meteor showers, the hours between midnight and dawn are best for the Orionids. A waning crescent moon rises in the early morning hours.

The term meteor shower might give you the idea of a rain shower. But few meteor showers resemble showers of rain. And the Orionids aren’t the year’s strongest shower, anyway. Plus they’re not particularly known for storming (producing unexpected, very rich displays). From a dark location you might see 10 to 20 Orionids per hour at their peak. There’s always the element of uncertainty and possible surprise when it comes to meteor showers.

Shooting southward below Orion's feet. Capture of a meteor over the last three weeks of the Orionids.
View at EarthSky Community Photos. | Randy Fullerton in Sardis, Mississippi, USA, caught this meteor on October 26, 2021, and wrote: “Shooting southward below Orion’s feet. With the full moon and rains, this is my best capture of a meteor over the last 3 weeks of the Orionids.” Thank you Randy!

Orionids zip through the sky

If you do see any Orionids in 2022, note that they’re known to be extremely fast meteors, plummeting into the Earth’s atmosphere at about 41 miles (66 km) per second. The meteors in this shower are on the faint side. But they make up for their faintness by leaving trains, or ionized gas trails that last for a few seconds after the meteor itself has gone. Maybe half of the Orionid meteors leave persistent trains.

Also, sometimes, an Orionid meteor can be exceptionally bright and break up into fragments.

How will you know if the meteor you see is an Orionid? You’ll know because it’ll come from the shower’s radiant point. See the chart at top.

Orionid meteor shower: Man in red jacket standing on a peak beneath starry sky with cloudy Milky Way and a white streak.
A bright meteor from the Orionid meteor shower burns across the sky in 2017, as the Milky Way looms over Sachuest Point National Wildlife Refuge in Middletown, Rhode Island. Photo by Mike Cohea. Thank you, Mike!

Orionid meteors radiate from constellation Orion

Meteors in annual showers are named for the point in our sky from which they appear to radiate. The radiant point for the Orionids is in the direction of the famous constellation Orion the Hunter, which you’ll find ascending in the east in the hours after midnight during October. Hence the name Orionids.

You don’t need to know Orion, or be staring toward it, to see the meteors. The meteors often don’t become visible until they are 30 degrees or so from their radiant point. And, remember, they are streaking out from the radiant in all directions. They will appear in all parts of the sky.

But if you do see a meteor – and trace its path backward – you might see that it comes from the Club of Orion. And, if so, that meteor will be an Orionid. You might know Orion’s bright, ruddy star Betelgeuse. The radiant is north of Betelgeuse.

So … in which direction do you look? No particular direction. It’s best to find a wide-open viewing area. Sometimes friends like to watch together, facing different directions. When somebody sees one, that person can call out meteor!

Bottom line: In 2022, the Orionid meteor shower is expected to rain down its greatest number of meteors on the morning of October 21.

*Predicted peak times and dates for 2022 meteor showers are from the American Meteor Society. Note that meteor shower peak times can vary.

EarthSky’s meteor shower guide for 2022

Meteor showers: Tips for watching the show

Posted 
January 20, 2022
 in 
Astronomy Essentials

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