January 4, 2019, before dawn, the Quadrantids
Although the Quadrantids can produce over 100 meteors per hour, the sharp peak of this shower tends to last only a few hours, and doesn’t always come at an opportune time. This year, the the almost-new waning crescent moon will ensure dark skies for this year’s production. Even though moonlight isn’t a factor this year, you still have to be in the right spot on Earth to view this meteor shower in all its splendor. The radiant point is in the part of the sky that used to be considered the constellation Quadrans Muralis the Mural Quadrant. You’ll find this radiant near the famous Big Dipper asterism (chart here), in the north-northeastern sky after midnight and highest up before dawn. Because the radiant is fairly far to the north on the sky’s dome, meteor numbers will be greater at northerly latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. In 2019, watch in the wee hours – after midnight and before dawn – on January 4. Fortunately, the absence of moonlight provides a big plus for watching this year’s Quadrantid meteor shower.
April 23, 2019, before dawn, the Lyrids
The Lyrid meteor shower – April’s shooting stars – lasts from about April 16 to 25. About 10 to 15 meteors per hour can be expected around the shower’s peak on a dark, moonless night. Unfortunately, in 2019, the almost-full waning gibbous moon will pretty much wash out this year’s Lyrid meteor shower. The Lyrids are known for uncommon surges that can sometimes bring the rate up to 100 per hour. Those rare outbursts are not easy to predict, but they’re one of the reasons the tantalizing Lyrids are worth checking out. The radiant for this shower is near the bright star Vega in the constellation Lyra (chart here), which rises in the northeast at about 10 p.m. on April evenings. In 2019, we expect the peak viewing hours to take place in the dark hours before dawn April 23, but under the light of a bright waning gibbous moon.
May 5, 2019, before dawn, the Eta Aquariids
This meteor shower has a relatively broad maximum – meaning you can watch it the day before and after the predicted peak morning of May 5. This shower favors the Southern Hemisphere, and is often the Southern Hemisphere’s best meteor shower of the year. In 2019, the new moon on May 4 guarantees dark nights for this year’s Eta Aquariid shower. The radiant is near the star Eta in the constellation Aquarius the Water Bearer (click here for chart). The radiant comes over the eastern horizon at about 4 a.m. local time; that is the time at all locations across the globe. For that reason, the hour or two before dawn tends to offer the most Eta Aquariid meteors, no matter where you are on Earth. At northerly latitudes – like those in the northern U.S. and Canada, or northern Europe, for example – the meteor numbers are typically lower for this shower. In the southern half of the U.S., 10 to 20 meteors per hour might be visible in a dark sky. Farther south – for example, at latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere – the meteor numbers may increase dramatically, with perhaps two to three times more Eta Aquariid meteors streaking the southern skies (on a dark, moonless night). For the most part, the Eta Aquariids are a predawn shower. In 2019, the most meteors will probably rain down in the predawn sky on May 5 – in a dark sky unmarred by moonlight! The broad peak to this shower means that some meteors may fly for a few days before and after the predicted optimal date.
Late July 2019, before dawn, the Delta Aquariids
Like the Eta Aquariids in May, the Delta Aquariid meteor shower in July favors the Southern Hemisphere and tropical latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. But these meteors can be seen from around the world. This year, fortunately, the new moon on August 1 will provide dark skies, which is especially important, because these faint meteors display very few fireballs or persistent trains. The meteors appear to radiate from near the star Skat or Delta in the constellation Aquarius the Water Bearer. The maximum hourly rate can reach 15 to 20 meteors in a dark sky. The nominal peak is around July 27-30, but, unlike many meteor showers, the Delta Aquariids lack a very definite peak. Instead, these medium-speed meteors ramble along fairly steadily throughout late July and early August. An hour or two before dawn usually presents the most favorable view of the Delta Aquariids. At the shower’s peak in late July 2019, the rather faint Delta Aquariid meteors will not have to contend with moonlight, so this is indeed a favorable year for watching this shower.
Late evening to dawn on August 11, 12 and 13, 2019, the Perseids
The Perseid meteor shower is perhaps the most beloved meteor shower of the year for the Northern Hemisphere. It’s a rich meteor shower, and it’s steady. Best of all, the slender waxing crescent moon will set at early evening, providing deliciously dark skies for this year’s Perseid meteors. These swift and bright meteors radiate from a point in the constellation Perseus the Hero. As with all meteor shower radiant points, you don’t need to know Perseus to watch the shower; instead, the meteors appear in all parts of the sky. These meteors frequently leave persistent trains. Perseid meteors tend to strengthen in number as late night deepens into midnight, and typically produce the most meteors in the wee hours before dawn. In 2019, the peak night of this shower will be marred by the brilliant waxing gibbous moon, although the brighter Perseids will likely overcome the moonlit glare. Predicted peak in 2019: the night of August 12-13, but try the nights before and after, too, from late night until dawn.
October 8 or 9, 2019, nightfall and evening, the Draconids
The radiant point for the Draconid meteor shower almost coincides with the head of the constellation Draco the Dragon in the northern sky. That’s why the Draconids are best viewed from the Northern Hemisphere. The Draconid shower is a real oddity, in that the radiant point stands highest in the sky as darkness falls. That means that, unlike many meteor showers, more Draconids are likely to fly in the evening hours than in the morning hours after midnight. This shower is usually a sleeper, producing only a handful of languid meteors per hour in most years. But watch out if the Dragon awakes! In rare instances, fiery Draco has been known to spew forth many hundreds of meteors in a single hour. In 2019, watch the Draconid meteors at nightfall and early evening on October 8. Try the nights of October 7 and 9, too. Unfortunately, the bright waxing gibbous moon is sure to intrude on this year’s production.
October 22, 2019, before dawn, the Orionids
On a dark, moonless night, the Orionids exhibit a maximum of about 10 to 20 meteors per hour. Unfortunately, in 2019, the moon is just past last quarter and will somewhat obscure this year’s production. More meteors tend to fly after midnight, and the Orionids are typically at their best in the wee hours before dawn. These fast-moving meteors occasionally leave persistent trains. The Orionids sometimes produce bright fireballs, so watch for them to possibly overcome the moonlight. If you trace these meteors backward, they seem to come from the Club of the famous constellation Orion the Hunter. You might know Orion’s bright, ruddy star Betelgeuse. The radiant is north of Betelgeuse. The Orionids have a broad and irregular peak that isn’t easy to predict. This year, 2019, the moonlight will somewhat subdue this year’s Orionid meteor shower. Try in the wee hours before dawn on October 21 and 22, in the light of the waning moon.
Late night November 5 until dawn November 6, 2019, the South Taurids
In 2019, the expected peak night of the South Taurid shower happens a few days after first quarter moon. But peak viewing is just after midnight, at which time the moon will have set or is close to setting. Click here to find out when the moon sets in your sky, remembering to check the moonrise and moonset box. The meteoroid streams that feed the South (and North) Taurids are very spread out and diffuse. The Taurids are extremely long-lasting (September 25 to November 25) but usually don’t offer more than about five meteors per hour. That is true even on the South Taurids’ peak night. The Taurids are, however, well known for having a high percentage of fireballs, or exceptionally bright meteors. Plus, the other Taurid shower – the North Taurids – adds a few more meteors to the mix during the South Taurids’ peak night. Peak viewing for a few hours, centered around 1 a.m. local time on November 5. But the South and North meteors continue to rain down throughout the following week, but with more interference from the waxing gibbous moon!
Late night November 12 until dawn November 13, 2019, the North Taurids
Like the South Taurids, the North Taurids meteor shower is long-lasting (October 12 – December 2) but modest, and the peak number is forecast at about five meteors per hour. Unfortunately, in 2019, the full moon will hamper the show, as it shines all night from dusk till dawn. The North and South Taurids combine to provide a nice sprinkling of meteors throughout October and November. Typically, you see the maximum numbers at around midnight, when Taurus the Bull is highest in the sky. Taurid meteors tend to be slow-moving, but sometimes very bright. In 2019, the predicted peak night is from late night November 12 till dawn November 19, but under the floodlight of the November 2019 full moon.
November 18, 2019, before dawn, the Leonids
In 2018, a bright waxing gibbous moon shines almost all night long on the peak night of the Leonid shower! However, the Leonids tend to produce the most meteors in the dark hour before dawn, at which time the moon will have set. (Click here to find out when the moon sets in your sky, remembering to check the moonrise and moonset box.) Radiating from the constellation Leo the Lion, the famous Leonid meteor shower has produced some of the greatest meteor storms in history – at least one in living memory, 1966 – with rates as high as thousands of meteors per minute during a span of 15 minutes on the morning of November 17, 1966. Indeed, on that beautiful night in 1966, the meteors did, briefly, fall like rain. Some who witnessed the 1966 Leonid meteor storm said they felt as if they needed to grip the ground, so strong was the impression of Earth plowing along through space, fording the meteoroid stream. The meteors, after all, were all streaming from a single point in the sky – the radiant point – in this case in the constellation Leo the Lion. Leonid meteor storms sometimes recur in cycles of 33 to 34 years, but the Leonids around the turn of the century – while wonderful for many observers – did not match the shower of 1966. And, in most years, the Lion whimpers rather than roars, producing a maximum of perhaps 10-15 meteors per hour on a dark night. Like many meteor showers, the Leonids ordinarily pick up steam after midnight and display the greatest meteor numbers just before dawn. In 2018, the Leonids are expected to fall most abundantly in the dark hour before dawn on November 17 or 18.
December 13-14, 2018, mid-evening until dawn, Geminids
Radiating from near the bright stars Castor and Pollux in the constellation Gemini the Twins, the Geminid meteor shower is one of the finest meteors showers visible in either the Northern or the Southern Hemisphere. In 2018, the rather wide waxing crescent moon staying out until mid-evening shouldn’t pose too much of a problem. The moon will set before the peak viewing hours of the Geminid shower, from late evening until dawn. The meteors are plentiful, rivaling the August Perseids. They are often bold, white and bright. On a dark night, you can often catch 50 or more meteors per hour. The greatest number of meteors fall in the wee hours after midnight, centered around 2 a.m. local time (the time on your clock no matter where you are on Earth), when the radiant point is highest in the sky. In 2018, watch the usually reliable and prolific Geminid meteor shower from mid-evening December 13 until dawn December 14.
December 22, 2018, before dawn, the Ursids
Die-hard meteor watchers in the Northern Hemisphere watch for Ursid meteors about a week after the Geminids. This low-key meteor shower is active each year from about December 17 to 26. The Ursids usually peak around the December solstice, perhaps offering 5 to 10 meteors per hour during the predawn hours in a dark sky. This year, in 2018, the peak of the Ursid shower falls on the same date as the full moon, on December 22 – so the full moon is sure to put a damper on this year’s display.
A word about moonlight. In 2018, moonlight poses no problem for the August Perseids, October Draconids and November North Taurids. The moon won’t seriously interfere with the November South Taurids and December Geminids. Some moon-free time accompanies the April Lyrids, October Orionids and November Leonids in the predawn sky. On the other hand, a waning gibbous moon obstructs the May Eta Aquariids, and an almost-full moon falls on the peak night of the January Quadrantids and July Delta Aquariids. Our almanac page provides links for access to the moonrise and moonset times in your sky.
Most important: a dark sky. Here’s the first thing – the main thing – you need to know to become as proficient as the experts at watching meteors. That is, to watch meteors, you need a dark sky. It’s possible to catch a meteor or two or even more from the suburbs. But, to experience a true meteor shower – where you might see several meteors each minute – avoid city lights. EarthSky’s Stargazing page shows dark locations (zoom out for a worldwide view).
Know your dates and times. You also need to be looking on the right date, at the right time of night. Meteor showers occur over a range of dates, because they stem from Earth’s own movement through space. As we orbit the sun, we cross “meteor streams.” These streams of icy particles in space come from comets moving in orbit around the sun. Comets are fragile, icy bodies that litter their orbits with debris. When this cometary debris enters our atmosphere, it vaporizes due to friction with the air. If moonlight or city lights don’t obscure the view, we on Earth see the falling, vaporizing particles as meteors.
Where to go to watch a meteor shower. You can comfortably watch meteors from many places, assuming you have a dark sky: a rural back yard or deck, the hood of your car, the side of a road. State parks and national parks are good bets, but be sure they have a wide open viewing area, like a field; you don’t want to be stuck in the midst of a forest on meteor night. An EarthSky friend, veteran meteor-watcher and astrophotographer Sergio Garcia Rill, also offers this specific advice:
… you might want to give it a try but don’t know where to go. Well, in planning my night photoshoots I use a variety of apps and web pages to know how dark the sky is in a certain location, the weather forecast, and how the night sky will look. Here’s the link to Dark Sky Finder. It’s a website that shows the light pollution in and around cities in North America which has been fundamental for finding dark sites to set up shots. Dark Sky finder also has an app for iPhone and iPad which as of this writting is only 99 cents so you might want to look into that as well. For people not in North America, the Blue Marble Navigator might be able to help to see how bright are the lights near you.
The other tool I can suggest is the Clear Sky Chart. I’ve learned the hard way that, now matter how perfectly dark the sky is at your location, it won’t matter if there’s a layer of clouds between you and the stars. This page is a little hard to read, but it shows a time chart, with each column being an hour, and each row being one of the conditions like cloud coverage and darkness. Alternatively, you could try to see the regular weather forecast at the weather channel or your favorite weather app.
What to bring with you. You don’t need special equipment to watch a meteor shower. If you want to bring along equipment to make yourself more comfortable, consider a blanket or reclining lawn chair, a thermos with a hot drink, binoculars for gazing at the stars. Be sure to dress warmly enough, even in spring or summer, especially in the hours before dawn. Binoculars are fun to have. You won’t need them for watching the meteor shower, but, especially if you have a dark sky, you might not be able to resist pointing them at the starry sky.
Are the predictions reliable? Although astronomers have tried to publish exact predictions in recent years, meteor showers remain notoriously unpredictable. Your best bet is to go outside at the times we suggest, and plan to spend at least an hour, if not a whole night, reclining comfortably while looking up at the sky. Also remember that meteor showers typically don’t just happen on one night. They span a range of dates. So the morning before or after a shower’s peak might be good, too.
Peak dates are derived from data published in the Observer’s Handbook by the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada and Guy Ottewell’s Astronomical Calendar.
Bottom line: Look here for information about all the major meteor showers between now and the year’s end. There are some good ones!
Bruce McClure has served as lead writer for EarthSky's popular Tonight pages since 2004. He's a sundial aficionado, whose love for the heavens has taken him to Lake Titicaca in Bolivia and sailing in the North Atlantic, where he earned his celestial navigation certificate through the School of Ocean Sailing and Navigation. He also writes and hosts public astronomy programs and planetarium programs in and around his home in upstate New York.