The image above is M33 – a nearby spiral galaxy – probably similar in appearance to our own Milky Way. Galaxies like our own, and like M33, are tens to hundreds of thousands of light-years across. They spin majestically in space over timescales of hundreds of millions of years. How do galaxies such as M33 and our Milky Way keep their spiral shape?
Astronomers sometimes call this the “wind-up problem” of the spiral arms. It has been observed that the inner parts of galaxies rotate faster than the outer parts. If so, are the inner parts of the spiral arms moving faster than the other parts? If that is happening, then the galaxy would have no choice but to wind up so much that the spiral structure would be thinned out and ultimately destroyed.
But we can see galaxies billions of light-years away – as well as those relatively nearby – that have maintained their spiral structure. How?
Astronomers believe that a galaxy’s spiral structure originates as a density wave emanating from the galactic center. The idea is that the entire disk of a galaxy is filled with material. As this density wave passes through, it’s thought to trigger bursts of star formation. The spiral arms of a galaxy mark where in the galaxy the density wave recently passed, causing new stars to form and burn brightly.
If that is so, then a spiral galaxy’s arms are visible primarily because they’re made of hot, young stars, and these very luminous stars should live for less than one rotation of the galaxy.
Estimates generally range from about 220 million to about 250 million years for the MIlky Way galaxy’s rotation. Our sun is four to five billion years old. It’s made a couple of dozen revolutions around the galactic center already, according to the reckoning of astronomers.
Given the various estimates for the age of the galaxy as a whole, it seems likely that the whole galaxy has spun around perhaps 50 times.
So, for the moment at least, the riddle seems solved. Astronomers believe a star’s residence within a spiral arm must be a temporary one, and the arms themselves are the result of a shock wave moving through the galaxy.
Deborah Byrd created the EarthSky radio series in 1991 and EarthSky.org in 1994. Today, she serves as Editor-in-Chief of this website. She has won a galaxy of awards from the broadcasting and science communities, including having an asteroid named 3505 Byrd in her honor. A science communicator and educator since 1976, Byrd believes in science as a force for good in the world and a vital tool for the 21st century. "Being an EarthSky editor is like hosting a big global party for cool nature-lovers," she says.