In a study by researchers from the Shaare Zedek Medical Center in Jerusalem, Israel, more than 60 percent of the hospital uniforms of doctors and nurses tested positive for potentially dangerous bacteria, according to results published in the September 2011 issue of the American Journal of Infection Control.
The team, led by Yonit Wiener-Well, collected swab samples from three parts of the uniforms of 75 registered nurses and 60 medical doctors by pressing standard blood agar plates at the abdominal zone, sleeves’ ends and pockets. Of the RNs and MDs sampled, 79 (58 percent) claimed to change their uniform every day, and 104 (77 percent) defined the level of hygiene of their attire as fair to excellent.
According to the World Health Organization, the risk of healthcare-associated infection (HAI) in some developing countries is up to 20 times higher than in developed countries. Even in hospitals in developed countries like Israel, the site of this investigation, and the U.S., HAIs occur too often, can be deadly, and are expensive to treat. HAI prevention is therefore the best approach for patient safety. Infection preventionists, in collaboration with direct care providers, can prevent more than half of HAIs by applying proven prevention practices.
The researchers at this 550-bed, university-affiliated Jerusalem hospital found that exactly half of all the cultures taken, representing 65 percent of the RN uniforms and 60 percent of the MD uniforms, harbored pathogens. Of those, 21 cultures from RN uniforms and six cultures from MD uniforms contained multi-drug resistant pathogens, including eight cultures that grew methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).
Although the uniforms themselves may not pose a direct risk of disease transmission, these results indicate a prevalence of antibiotic resistant strains in close proximity to hospitalized patients.
Russell Olmsted, president of the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, said:
It is important to put these study results into perspective. Any clothing that is worn by humans will become contaminated with microorganisms. The cornerstone of infection prevention remains the use of hand hygiene to prevent the movement of microbes from these surfaces to patients.
New evidence such as this study by Dr. Wiener-Well is helpful to improve the understanding of potential sources of contamination but, as is true for many studies, it raises additional questions that need to be investigated.
Bottom line: Yonit Wiener-Well, of Shaare Zedek Medical Center in Jerusalem, Israel, and a team of researchers found that more than 60 percent of hospital uniforms of doctors and nurses tested positive for potentially dangerous bacteria. Results of their study appear in the September 2011 issue of the American Journal of Infection Control.