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EarthSky’s meteor shower guide for 2016

2016 will be a great year for watching meteors in late July and early August. A dark sky is best … peak time is late night to dawn.

Taken during the 2015 Perseid meteor shower in August - at Mount Rainier National Park - by Matt Dieterich.  He calls the photo 'Skyfall.'

Composed of images taken during the 2015 Perseid shower at Mount Rainier National Park. Matt Dieterich, who composed it, calls it ‘Skyfall.’ It’s not a depiction of what you’ll see at 2016’s Perseid meteor shower. You’ll likely see one, or two, meteors at a time, possibly more if you catch 2016’s predicted outburst.

January 3-4, 2016 Quadrantids

Around the March equinox … fireball season

April 21-22, 2016 Lyrids

May 5-6, 2016 Eta Aquarids

July 28-29, 2016 Delta Aquarids

August 11-12, possible Perseid outburst in 2016

October 7, 2016 Draconids

October 20-21, 2016 Orionids

November 4-5, 2016 South Taurids

November 11-12, 2016 North Taurids

November 16-17, 2016 Leonids

December 13-14, 2016 Geminids

A word about moonlight

Most important: a dark sky

Know your dates and times

Where to go to watch a meteor shower

What to bring with you

Are the predictions reliable?

Remember …

Quadrantid meteor, caught just as the clouds were closing in, by Deb Kestler in Middletown, Rhode Island, January 4, 2016.

Quadrantid meteor in 2016, caught just as the clouds were closing in, by Deb Kestler in Middletown, Rhode Island.

January 4, 2016 before dawn, the Quadrantids

Although the Quadrantids can produce over 100 meteors per hour, the sharp peak of this shower tends to last only a few hours, and doesn’t always come at an opportune time. In other words, you have to be in the right spot on Earth to view this meteor shower in all its splendor. The radiant point is in the part of the sky that used to be considered the constellation Quadrans Muralis the Mural Quadrant. You’ll find this radiant near the famous Big Dipper asterism (chart here), in the north-northeastern sky after midnight and highest up before dawn. Because the radiant is fairly far to the north on the sky’s dome, meteor numbers will be greater at northerly latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. In 2016, watch in the wee hours – after midnight and before dawn – on January 4. Fortunately, the waning crescent moon shouldn’t too greatly intrude on this predawn shower.

Everything you need to know: Quadrantid meteor shower

View larger. | Photo taken March, 2016, by Mike Taylor in Maine.  Visit MikeTaylorPhoto.com

March fireball, captured in 2016 by Mike Taylor in Maine, against a backdrop of the aurora borealis.

Around the March equinox … fireball season. A fireball is just an especially bright meteor. Northern spring and southern autumn – for a few weeks around the March equinox – is a good time to see one. It’s fireball season — a time of year when bright meteors appear in greater numbers than usual. In fact, in the weeks around the equinox, the appearance rate of fireballs can increase by as much as 30 percent. Why? No one is entirely sure, says NASA. Read more about fireball season.

Lyrid meteor on April 21, 2014.  Simon Waldram in Fuerteventura, in the Canary Islands, discovered this one as he finished batch editing 320 photos to make a startrail image.  Thanks, Simon!

Lyrid meteor on in 2014 by Simon Waldram in Fuerteventura, in the Canary Islands. He discovered it as he finished batch editing 320 photos to make a startrail image.

April 22, 2016 before dawn, the Lyrids
The Lyrid meteor shower – April’s shooting stars – lasts from about April 16 to 25. Unfortunately, in 2016, the full moon almost exactly coincides with the peak of the Lyrid meteor shower. About 10 to 15 meteors per hour can be expected around the shower’s peak on a dark, moonless night. Lyrid meteors tend to be bright and often leave trails, so maybe a meteor or two might overcome the drenching light of the full moon in 2016. The Lyrids are known for uncommon surges that can sometimes bring the rate up to 100 per hour. Those rare outbursts are not easy to predict, but they’re one of the reasons the tantalizing Lyrids are worth checking out. The radiant for this shower is near the bright star Vega in the constellation Lyra (chart here), which rises in the northeast at about 10 p.m. on April evenings. In 2016, the peak morning is April 22, though under the glaring light of the full moon.

Everything you need to know: Lyrid meteor shower

Long meteor caught during the peak of last week's Eta Aquarid meteor shower, May 6, 2016.  Photo by Darla Young.

Long meteor caught during the peak of the May, 2016 Eta Aquarid meteor shower, by Darla Young.

May 5 and 6, 2016 before dawn, the Eta Aquarids
This meteor shower has a relatively broad maximum – meaning you can watch it the day before and after the predicted peak of May 6. This shower favors the Southern Hemisphere, and is often the Southern hemisphere’s best meteor shower of the year. By good fortune, in 2016, the moon turns new at or near the shower’s peak. The radiant is near the star Eta in the constellation Aquarius the Water Bearer (click here for chart). The radiant comes over the eastern horizon at about 4 a.m. local time; that is the time at all locations across the globe. For that reason, the hour or two before dawn tends to offer the most Eta Aquarid meteors, no matter where you are on Earth. At northerly latitudes – like those in the northern U.S. and Canada, or northern Europe, for example – the meteor numbers are typically lower for this shower. In the southern half of the U.S., 10 to 20 meteors per hour might be visible in a dark sky. Farther south – for example, at latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere – the meteor numbers may increase dramatically, with perhaps two to three times more Eta Aquarid meteors streaking the southern skies. For the most part, the Eta Aquarids are a predawn shower. In 2016, the May 6 new moon will insure dark skies for this year’s production. The most meteors will probably rain down on the mornings of May 5 and 6, in the dark hours before dawn. But watch on May 7 as well! Plus, the broad peak to this shower means that some meteors may fly in the dark hour before dawn for a few days before and after the predicted optimal date.

Everything you need to know: Eta Aquarid meteor shower

David S. Brown caught this meteor on July 30, 2014, in southwest Wyoming.

Delta Aquarid in 2014, from David S. Brown in southwest Wyoming.

Late July and early August, 2016, the Delta Aquarids
Like the Eta Aquarids in May, the Delta Aquarid meteor shower in July favors the Southern Hemisphere and tropical latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. The meteors appear to radiate from near the star Skat or Delta in the constellation Aquarius the Water Bearer. The maximum hourly rate can reach 15-20 meteors in a dark sky. The nominal peak is around July 27-30, but, unlike many meteor showers, the Delta Aquarids lack a very definite peak. Instead, these medium-speed meteors ramble along fairly steadily throughout late July and early August. An hour or two before dawn usually presents the most favorable view of the Delta Aquarids. At the shower’s peak in late July, 2016, the rather faint Delta Aquarid meteors will have to somewhat contend with the light of a waning crescent moon. But the moon turns new in early August, enabling you to view some Delta Aquarids after the peak date.

Everything you need to know: Delta Aquarid shower

Scott MacNeill created this wonderful composite image of the Perseid meteor shower in 2013, at Frosty Drew Observatory in Charlestown, Rhode Island. You can see the meteors coming from their radiant point, in the constellation Perseus.

Composite image of the Perseid meteor shower in 2013, by Scott MacNeill at Frosty Drew Observatory in Charlestown, Rhode Island. You can see the meteors coming from their radiant point, in the constellation Perseus.

August 11-12, possible Perseid outburst in 2016!
The Perseid meteor shower is perhaps the most beloved meteor shower of the year for the Northern Hemisphere, and the 2016 prediction for an outburst should have many watching this year’s shower on the night of August 11-12. On that night, if the outburst occurs for you, and if the moon is down and the radiant point is high when it occurs, you might see 200 meteors per hour. But also remember, the Perseids build gradually to a peak beginning in early August. So don’t wait. Watch for Perseid meteors on the nights leading up to the shower, too, even as early as early August. Perseid meteors tend to strengthen in number as late night deepens into midnight, and typically produce the most meteors in the wee hours before dawn. They radiate from a point in the constellation Perseus the Hero, but, as with all meteor shower radiant points, you don’t need to know Perseus to watch the shower; instead, the meteors appear in all parts of the sky. They are typically fast and bright meteors. They frequently leave persistent trains. Predicted peak morning in 2016: night of August 11-12. A waxing gibbous moon will be interfering with the show, but it’ll be gone from the sky by the predawn hours. For best results, watch after moonset and before dawn on the mornings of August 11 and 13. Watch all night on August 11-12 (evening of August 11, morning of August 12).

Perseid meteor shower outburst expected in 2016

Draconids near Tucson, Arizona in 2013, by our friend Sean Parker Photography.

Draconids near Tucson, Arizona in 2013, by our friend Sean Parker Photography.

October 7, 2016, the Draconids
The radiant point for the Draconid meteor shower almost coincides with the head of the constellation Draco the Dragon in the northern sky. That’s why the Draconids are best viewed from the Northern Hemisphere. The Draconid shower is a real oddity, in that the radiant point stands highest in the sky as darkness falls. That means that, unlike many meteor showers, more Draconids are likely to fly in the evening hours than in the morning hours after midnight. This shower is usually a sleeper, producing only a handful of languid meteors per hour in most years. But watch out if the Dragon awakes! In rare instances, fiery Draco has been known to spew forth many hundreds of meteors in a single hour. In 2016, the waxing crescent moon may somewhat intrude on this year’s Draconid shower. Try watching at nightfall and early evening on October 7.

Everything you need to know: Draconid Meteor shower

Here is a beautiful aurora, with an Orionid meteor falling above it.  Photo taken in 2013 by Tommy Eliassen Photography in Norway.

Orionid meteor, with aurora, in 2013 by Tommy Eliassen Photography in Norway.

October 21, 2016 before dawn, the Orionids
On a dark, moonless night, the Orionids exhibit a maximum of about 10 to 20 meteors per hour. But, in 2016, the waning gibbous moon will be out during the morning hours before sunrise, when the Orionid meteors fall most abundantly. More meteors tend to fly after midnight, and the Orionids are typically at their best in the wee hours before dawn. These fast-moving meteors occasionally leave persistent trains. They sometimes produce bright fireballs, so watch for them to flame in the sky. If you trace these meteors backward, they seem to come from the Club of the famous constellation Orion the Hunter. You might know Orion’s bright, ruddy star Betelgeuse. The radiant is north of Betelgeuse. The Orionids have a broad and irregular peak that isn’t easy to predict. This year, 2016, presents a less than optimal year for watching the Orionid meteor shower. The best viewing for the Orionids will probably be before dawn on October 22, though in the glare of the waning gibbous moon..

Everything you need to know: Orionid meteor shower

View larger. | Jeff Dai in Tibet captured this Taurid fireball on November 10, 2015.  He wrote:

In 2015, the Taurids put on a spectacular display of fireballs, which lasted many days. Photographer Jeff Dai captured this one over Yamdrok Lake in Tibet.

Late night November 4 until dawn November 5, 2016, the South Taurids
The meteoroid streams that feed the South (and North) Taurids are very spread out and diffuse. That means the Taurids are extremely long-lasting (September 25 to November 25) but usually don’t offer more than about 7 meteors per hour. That is true even on the South Taurids’ expected peak night. The Taurids are, however, well known for having a high percentage of fireballs, or exceptionally bright meteors. Plus, the other Taurid shower – the North Taurids – always adds a few more meteors to the mix during the South Taurids’ peak night. In 2016, the waxing crescent moon will set in the evening early, providing dark skies for this year’s South Taurid meteor shower. The South Taurids should produce their greatest number of meteors shortly after midnight on November 5. Remember, it’ll be possible to catch a fireball or two!

Late night November 11 until dawn November 12, 2016, the North Taurids
Like the South Taurids, the North Taurids meteor shower is long-lasting (October 12 – December 2) but modest, and the peak number is forecast at about 7 meteors per hour. The North and South Taurids combine, however, to provide a nice sprinkling of meteors throughout October and November. Typically, you see the maximum numbers at around midnight, when Taurus the Bull is highest in the sky. Taurid meteors tend to be slow-moving, but sometimes very bright. In 2016, the waxing gibbous moon obtrudes on this year’s 2016 North Taurid shower.

James Younger sent in this photos during the 2015 peak of the Leonid meteor shower.  It's a meteor over the San Juan Islands in the Pacific Northwest, between the U.S. mainland and Vancouver Island, British Columbia.  The San Juans are part of the U.S. state of Washington.

James Younger sent in this photo during the 2015 peak of the Leonid meteor shower. It’s a meteor over the San Juan Islands in the Pacific Northwest.

November 17, 2016, before dawn, the Leonids
Radiating from the constellation Leo the Lion, the famous Leonid meteor shower has produced some of the greatest meteor storms in history – at least one in living memory, 1966 – with rates as high as thousands of meteors per minute during a span of 15 minutes on the morning of November 17, 1966. Indeed, on that beautiful night in 1966, the meteors did, briefly, fall like rain. Some who witnessed the 1966 Leonid meteor storm said they felt as if they needed to grip the ground, so strong was the impression of Earth plowing along through space, fording the meteoroid stream. The meteors, after all, were all streaming from a single point in the sky – the radiant point – in this case in the constellation Leo the Lion. Leonid meteor storms sometimes recur in cycles of 33 to 34 years, but the Leonids around the turn of the century – while wonderful for many observers – did not match the shower of 1966. And, in most years, the Lion whimpers rather than roars, producing a maximum of perhaps 10-15 meteors per hour on a dark night. Like many meteor showers, the Leonids ordinarily pick up steam after midnight and display the greatest meteor numbers just before dawn. In 2016, the Leonids are expected to fall most abundantly before dawn November 17, though under the bright light of waning gibbous moon.

Everything you need to know: Leonid meteor shower

Cynthia Haithcock in Troy, North Carolina caught this Geminid on December 14. Looks like a bright one!  She wrote:

Cynthia Haithcock in Troy, North Carolina caught this Gemini in 2015. Looks like a bright one!

December 13-14, 2016, mid-evening until dawn, Geminids
Radiating from near the bright stars Castor and Pollux in the constellation Gemini the Twins, the Geminid meteor shower is one of the finest meteors showers visible in either the Northern or the Southern Hemisphere. However, in 2016, the full moon falls on the peak date of the Geminid shower. The meteors are plentiful, rivaling the August Perseids. They are often bold, white and bright. The zenithal hourly rate for the Geminids is up to 120 meteors per hour, after some good displays in recent years. That is the predicted best rate of the shower, which you might see if you’re watching in a dark country sky on the night of the peak, around 2 a.m. local time (the time on your clock no matter where you are on Earth), when the radiant point is highest in the sky. In 2016, the full moon will be out all night long, subduing the usually prolific Geminid meteor shower on the night of December 13-24.

Everything you need to know: Geminid meteor shower

A word about moonlight. In 2016, moonlight will pose no problem for the May Eta Aquarids, and no serious interference with the January Quadrantids, July Delta Aquarids, August Perseids and November South Taurids. There will be moon-free skies for watching the August Perseids for several hours before dawn. On the other hand, the full moon falls on the peak nights of the April Lyrids and December Geminids. Our almanac page provides links for access to the moonrise and moonset times in your sky.

Most important: a dark sky. Here’s the first thing – the main thing – you need to know to become as proficient as the experts at watching meteors. That is, to watch meteors, you need a dark sky. It’s possible to catch a meteor or two or even more from the suburbs. But, to experience a true meteor shower – where you might see several meteor each minute – avoid city lights.

Know your dates and times. You also need to be looking on the right date, at the right time of night. Meteor showers occur over a range of dates, because they stem from Earth’s own movement through space. As we orbit the sun, we cross “meteor streams.” These streams of icy particles in space come from comets moving in orbit around the sun. Comets are fragile icy bodies that litter their orbits with debris. When this cometary debris enters our atmosphere, it vaporizes due to friction with the air. If moonlight or city lights don’t obscure the view, we on Earth see the falling, vaporizing particles as meteors. The Lyrids take place between about April 16 and 25. The peak morning in 2016 should be April 21, but you might catch Lyrid meteors on the nights around that date as well.

Where to go to watch a meteor shower. You can comfortably watch meteors from many places, assuming you have a dark sky: a rural back yard or deck, the hood of your car, the side of a road. State parks and national parks are good bets, but be sure they have a wide open viewing area, like a field; you don’t want to be stuck in the midst of a forest on meteor night. An EarthSky friend and veteran meteor-watcher and astrophotographer Sergio Garcia Rill also offers this specific advice:

… you might want to give it a try but don’t know where to go. Well, in planning my night photoshoots I use a variety of apps and web pages to know how dark the sky is in a certain location, the weather forecast, and how the night sky will look. Here’s the link to Dark Sky Finder. It’s a website that shows the light pollution in and around cities in North America which has been fundamental for finding dark sites to setup shots. Dark Sky finder also has an app for iPhone and iPad which as of this writting is only 99 cents so you might want to look into that as well. For people not in North America, the Blue Marble Navigator might be able to help to see how bright are the lights near you.

The other tool I can suggest is the Clear Sky Chart. I’ve learned the hard way that, now matter how perfectly dark the sky is at your location, it won’t matter if there’s a layer of clouds between you an the stars. This page is a little hard to read, but it shows a time chart, with each column being an hour, and each row being one of the conditions like cloud coverage and darkness. Alternatively, you could try to see the regular weather forecast at the weather channel or your favorite weather app.

What to bring with you. You don’t need special equipment to watch a meteor shower. If you want to bring along equipment to make yourself more comfortable, consider a blanket or reclining lawn chair, a thermos with a hot drink, binoculars for gazing at the stars. Be sure to dress warmly enough, even in spring or summer, especially in the hours before dawn. Binoculars are fun to have, too. You won’t need them for watching the meteor shower, but, especially if you have a dark sky, you might not be able to resist pointing them at the starry sky.

Are the predictions reliable? Although astronomers have tried to publish exact predictions in recent years, meteor showers remain notoriously unpredictable. Your best bet is to go outside at the times we suggest, and plan to spend at least an hour, if not a whole night, reclining comfortably while looking up at the sky. Also remember that meteor showers typically don’t just happen on one night. They span a range of dates. So the morning before or after a shower’s peak might be good, too.

Remember … meteor showers are like fishing. You go, you enjoy nature … and sometimes you catch something.

Peak dates are derived from data published in the Observer’s Handbook by the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada and Guy Ottewell’s Astronomical Calendar.

This Geminid meteor is seen coming straight from its radiant point, which is near the two brightest stars in Gemini, Castor and Pollux. Photo taken on the night of December 12-13, 2012 by EarthSky Facebook friend Mike O’Neal in Oklahoma. He said the 2012 Geminid meteor shower was one of the best meteor shows he’s ever seen.

Bottom line: 2016 will be a great year for watching meteors in late July and early August. A dark sky is best … peak time is late night to dawn.

EarthSky’s top 10 tips for meteor-watchers

Bruce McClure

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